Sales & Service>Fitting surface pressure
Fitting surface pressure

Press mounting require a large force. When attaching the inner ring firmly to the shaft, the force to press-mount an inner ring in the axial direction varies depending on interference and shaft diameter. Moreover, during press mounting work, brinelling indentations may be caused on the raceway surfaces by rolling elements if force is applied to the outer ring. Thus, it is critical to know the fitting surface pressure on mounting performing.

Pressure and maximum allowable stress
The press fitting force or withdrawal force of the fitted surface, and maximum allowable stress between fitting surfaces which are applied to a solid shaft or hollow shaft, can be expressed by the following equations.

Fit conditions Equation Codes (units: N {kgf}, mm)
Solid steel
shaft/inner ring fit
d: Shaft diameter, inner ring bore diameter
d0: Hollow shaft inner diameter
Di: Inner ring average groove diameter
Δdeff: Effective interference
E: Elasticity factor
Hollow steel
shaft/inner ring fit
Steel housing/
outer ring fit
D: Housing inner diameter, bearing outer diameter
D0: Outer ring average groove diameter
Dh: Housing outer diameter
ΔDeff: Effective interference
Shaft/inner ring fit Inner ring bore diameter face maximum
allowable stress
outer ring fit
Outer ring inner diameter face maximum
allowable stress

● Average groove diameter

The average groove diameter is from actual measurement of the bearing or the design data. The right chart can be used to determine the approximate average groove diameter for bearing inner and outer rings.

Bearing type Average groove diameter
Inner ring (Di ) Outer rnig (Do )
Deep groove
ball bearings
4d + D
d + 4D

Average fit interference as it relates to surface pressure and max. allowable stress Maximum fit interference as it relates to surface pressure and max. allowable stress

● Necessary press fit and pullout force
Excessive interference can sometimes produce abnormally large stress in the inner ring, which may cause the inner ring to crack or be otherwise damaged. Euquation below can be used to calculate the necessary pullout force for press fit for inner rings and shafts or outer rings and housings.

Kd= μ ·· π ·· B
KD= μ ·· π ·· B

Kd: Inner ring press fit or pullout force N {kgf}
KD:Outer ring press fit or pullout force N {kgf}
P:   Fitted surface pressure MPa {kgf/mm2}

d:   Shaft diameter, inner ring bore diameter mm
D:   Housing inner diameter, outer ring outer diameter mm
B:   Inner or outer ring width
  :   Sliding friction coefficient

● Press fit and pullout sliding friction coefficient

Friction on the fitted surface differs substan-
tially depending on the fitted-surface condit-
ions. In general, the value listed in the follow
ing table can apply to the values of u. As a general rule, it is desirable to choose a fit for which the maximum stress value may be set to 98MPa or less for bearing steel or, in the worst case, to 127Mpa or less.
Type μ
Inner (outer) ring press fit onto cylindrical shaft (bore)
Inner (outer) ring pullout from cylindrical shaft (bore)
Sleeve press fit onto shaft/bearing
Sleeve pullout from shaft/bearing

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